Building Java Programs

Lab: Arrays

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2019 Stuart Reges and Marty Stepp.

lab document created by Marty Stepp, Stuart Reges and Whitaker Brand

Lab goals

Goals for this problem set:

Exercise : Array declaration syntax practice-it

Which of the following choices is the correct syntax for declaring/initializing an array of integers?

Exercise : Quick initialization syntax practice-it

Which of the following choices is the correct syntax for quickly declaring/initializing an array of integers to store a particular list of values? We didn't get to this in lecture -- check the slides or chapter 7 in the book.

Exercise : Array code tracing

Fill in the array with the values that would be stored after the code executes:

int[] data = new int[8];
data[0] = 3;
data[7] = -18;
data[4] = 5;
data[1] = data[0];

int x = data[4];
data[4] = 6;
data[x] = data[0] * data[1];
index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
value 3 3 0 0 6 9 0 -18

Exercise : Array code tracing 2 practice-it

Fill in the array with the values that would be stored after the code executes:

int[] list = {2, 18, 6, -4, 5, 1};
for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) {
    list[i] = list[i] + (list[i] / list[0]);
}
index 0 1 2 3 4 5
value 3 24 8 -5 6 1

Exercise : PromptNumbers practice-it

Arrays as parameter/return (declare)

public static type name(type[] name) {   // pass array parameter
public static type[] name(parameters) {   // return array
public static int[] roundAll(double[] realNums) {
    int[] roundedNums = new int[realNums.length];
    for (int i = 0; i < realNums.length; i++) {
        roundedNums[i] = (int) Math.round(realNums[i]);
    }
    return roundedNums;
}

Arrays as parameter/return (call)

import java.util.*; // to use Arrays

public class MyProgram {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        double[] realNumbers = {5.5, 7.31, 8.09, -3.234234, 2.0, 0.0};
        int[] roundedNumbers = roundAll(realNumbers);
        System.out.println(Arrays.toString(roundedNumbers));
    }
    ...
}

// Output: [5, 7, 8, -3, 2, 0]

Arrays class methods

Method name Description
Arrays.binarySearch(array, value) returns index of value in a sorted array (< 0 if not found)
Arrays.copyOf(array, length) returns a new copy of an array
Arrays.equals(array1, array2) returns true if the two arrays contain same elements
Arrays.fill(array, value) sets every element to the given value
Arrays.sort(array) arranges the elements into sorted order
Arrays.toString(array) returns a string for the array, such as "[10, 30, -25, 17]"

Exercise : Array reference mystery practice-it

What values are stored in the array at the comment in main? Note that the incrementAll method returns void, but does take an int[] parameter.

public class ArrayReference {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] nums = {2, 4, -1, 3};
        incrementAll(nums);

        // HERE!
    }

    public static void incrementAll(int[] data) {
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {
            data[i]++;
        }
    }
}
index 0 1 2 3
value 3 5 0 4

Exercise : Array reference mystery practice-it

Solve another reference mystery problem on PracticeIt!

Discuss it with your neighbor before submitting the answer and make sure you agree with each other's solution. There will be a problem of this type on the final!

Exercise : array mystery practice-it

Suppose that each array at right were passed as a parameter to the mystery method below. Fill in the boxes with the array contents after each method call.

public static void mystery(int[] a) {
    for (int i = 0; i < a.length - 1; i++) {
        if (a[i] < a[i + 1]) {
            a[i] = a[i + 1];
        }
    }
}
int[] a1 = {2, 4};
mystery(a1);
{4, 4}
[^0-9,]+
int[] a2 = {1, 3, 6};
mystery(a2);
{3, 6, 6}
[^0-9,]+
int[] a3 = {7, 2, 8, 4};
mystery(a3);
{7, 8, 8, 4}
[^0-9,]+
int[] a4 = {5, 2, 7, 2, 4};
mystery(a4);
{5, 7, 7, 4, 4}
[^0-9,]+
int[] a5 = {2, 4, 6, 3, 7, 9};
mystery(a5);
{4, 6, 6, 7, 9, 9}
[^0-9,]+

Exercise : jGRASP Debugger

Exercise - jGRASP Debugger

continued on the next slide...

Exercise - jGRASP Debugger

Exercise : max errors practice-it

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// Returns the largest value in the given array.
public static int max(int data[10]) {
    int max = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < data[].length(); i++) {
        if (array[i] > max) {
            max = array[i];
        }
    }
    return max[];
}

The above attempted solution to Practice-It problem "max" has 7 problems. Open Practice-It from the link above, copy/paste this code into it, and fix the errors. Complete the code so that it passes the test cases.

Exercise - answer

  1. line 2: should not write [10] after parameter name; should write [] (without length) after int
  2. line 3: starting max at 0 won't work if the array is all negative. Should initialize max variable to be data[0] and start for loop at index 1
  3. line 4: should not write [] after data here
  4. line 4: should not write () after length here
  5. line 5: array should be data
  6. line 6: array should be data
  7. line 9: should not write [] after max here

Exercise - solution

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// Returns the largest value in the given array.
public static int max(int[] data) {
    int max = data[0];
    for (int i = 1; i < data.length; i++) {
        if (data[i] > max) {
            max = data[i];
        }
    }
    return max;
}

Exercise : PromptNumbers2 practice-it

Exercise - answer

public class PromptNumbers2 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int count = console.nextInt();
        int[] nums = new int[count];
        ...
        System.out.println("Your numbers in forward order:");
        printForward(nums);

        System.out.println("Your numbers in backward order:");
        printBackward(nums);
    }

    // Prints the elements of the given array in forward order.
    public static void printForward(int[] a) {
        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
            System.out.println(a[i]);
        }
    }
    // Prints the elements of the given array in backward order.
    public static void printBackward(int[] a) {
        for (int i = a.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
            System.out.println(a[i]);
        }
    }
}

Exercise : minGap practice-it

Write a method named minGap that accepts an integer array as a parameter and returns the minimum 'gap' between adjacent values in the array. The gap between two adjacent values in a array is defined as the second value minus the first value. For example, suppose a variable called array is an array of integers that stores the following sequence of values:

int[] array = {1, 3, 6, 7, 12};

The first gap is 2 (3 - 1), the second gap is 3 (6 - 3), the third gap is 1 (7 - 6) and the fourth gap is 5 (12 - 7). Thus, the call of minGap(array) should return 1 because that is the smallest gap in the array. If you are passed an array with fewer than 2 elements, you should return 0.

Click on the check-mark above to try out your solution in Practice-it!

Exercise : percentEven practice-it

Write a method named percentEven that accepts an array of integers as a parameter and returns the percentage of even numbers in the array as a real number. For example, if a variable named nums refers to an array of the elements {6, 2, 9, 11, 3}, then the call of percentEven(nums) should return 40.0. If the array contains no even elements or no elements at all, return 0.0.

Click on the check-mark above to try out your solution in Practice-it!

Exercise : copyRange practice-it

Write a method named copyRange that takes as parameters two arrays a1 and a2, two starting indexes i1 and i2, and a length l, and copies the first l elements of a1 starting at index i1 into array a2 starting at index i2.

For example, if the following arrays are declared:

int[] a1 = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60};
int[] a2 = {91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96};
copyRange(a1, a2, 0, 2, 3);

After the preceding call, the contents of a2 would be {91, 92, 10, 20, 30, 96}. You may assume that the parameters' values are valid, that the arrays are large enough to hold the data, and so on.

Exercise : equals practice-it

Write a method named equals that accepts two arrays of integers as parameters and returns true if they contain exactly the same elements in the same order, and false otherwise. Note that the arrays might not be the same length; if the lengths differ, return false. Do not call Arrays.equals in your solution.

For example, if the following arrays are declared:

int[] a1 = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60};
int[] a2 = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60};
int[] a3 = {20, 3, 50, 10, 68};

The call equals(a1, a2) returns true but the call equals(a1, a3) returns false.

Exercise : append practice-it

Write a method called append that accepts two integer arrays as parameters and that returns a new array that contains the result of appending the second array's values at the end of the first array.

You should solve this problem in Practice-It!

Exercise : swapAll practice-it

Write a method named swapAll that accepts two arrays of integers as parameters and swaps their entire contents. You may assume that the arrays passed are not null and are the same length.

For example, if the following arrays are passed:

int[] a1 = {11, 42, -5, 27, 0, 89};
int[] a2 = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60};
swapAll(a1, a2);

After the call, the arrays should store the following elements:

a1: {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60}
a2: {11, 42, -5, 27, 0, 89}

Exercise : longestSortedSequence practice-it

Write a method called longestSortedSequence that accepts an array of integers as a parameter and that returns the length of the longest sorted (nondecreasing) sequence of integers in the array.

You should solve this problem in Practice-It!