Building Java Programs

Lab: Graphics

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2019 Stuart Reges and Marty Stepp.

lab document created by Marty Stepp, Stuart Reges and Whitaker Brand

Lab goals

Goals for this problem set:

Graphics

Now we'll explore several exercises related to drawing graphics.

quilt drawingpanel compare

Parameterized methods and Graphics

When you want to divide a graphical program into multiple drawing methods, you must pass Graphics g as a parameter in addition to any other parameters. Example:

public static void main(String[] args) {
    DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(400, 300);
    Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
    ...
    drawStuff(g, 13, 52, 7);
}

public static void drawStuff(Graphics g, int a, int b, int c) {
    g.drawLine(a, 45, b, c);
    ...
}

Exercise : Syntax errors

answer on next slide...

Exercise - answer

  1. line 1: incorrect import statement; should import java.awt.*
  2. line 5: missing word new before 2nd occurrence of DrawingPanel
  3. line 6: method name should be setBackground
  4. line 6: missing panel. before setBackground
  5. line 8: method name should be getGraphics
  6. line 9: the setColor method is part of object g, not panel
  7. line 9: should not write new before Color.BLUE
  8. line 10: method name should be drawRect
  9. line 10: missing two parameters from drawRect (width and height)
  10. line 11: color should be specified as Color.RED, not "RED"
  11. line 12: method name should be fillOval
  12. line 12: wrong parameter types; width/height must be integers

Exercise - corrected version

Exercise : Face practice-it

Write a complete Java program that draws the following output:

face

Exercise - answer

import java.awt.*;

public class Face1 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(220, 150);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        
        g.drawOval(10, 30, 100, 100);   // face outline
        g.setColor(Color.BLUE);
        g.fillOval(30, 60, 20, 20);     // eyes
        g.fillOval(70, 60, 20, 20);
        g.setColor(Color.RED);          // mouth
        g.drawLine(40, 100, 80, 100);
    }
}

Exercise : Stairs loop table

stairs 1

Consider the output at right. The first stair's top-left corner is at position (5, 5). The first stair is 10x10 px in size. Each stair is 10px wider than the one above it.

Fill in the table below with the coordinates and sizes of the first five stairs. Note which values change and which ones stay the same.

stair x y width height
1
5
5
10
10
2
5
15
20
10
3
5
25
30
10
4
5
35
40
10
5
5
45
50
10

Exercise : Stairs practice-it

stairs 1

Write a complete Java program to draw the stairs. Copy/paste the code template below into jGRASP and fill in your own expressions or values for each stair's x, y, width, and height.

Use your table from the previous slide to help you find the correct expressions. The values that change for each stair should become expressions in terms of the loop counter variable, i.

import java.awt.*;

public class Stairs1 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(110, 110);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
            g.drawRect(x, y, width, height);
        }
    }
}

Exercise : Stairs 2 practice-it

Modify your stairs program to draw one (or all) of the following outputs. Modify only the body in your for loop. (You may want to make a new table to find the expressions for x, y, width, and height.)

stairs 1stairs 2 stairs 3 stairs 4

Exercise - answer

To get each output, change the for loop body to the following:

// output 2
g.drawRect(5, 5 + 10*i, 100 - 10*i, 10);
// output 3
g.drawRect(95 - 10*i, 5 + 10*i, 10 + 10*i, 10);
// output 4
g.drawRect(5 + 10*i, 5 + 10*i, 100 - 10*i, 10);

Exercise : Face 1+2

face

Suppose you have an existing program that draws the "face" figure at right. Let's modify the program using methods and parameters so that we can draw several faces at different locations.

continued on the next slide...

Exercise : Face 2 practice-it

Modify the Face program to draw the following output. Write a parameterized method that draws a face at different positions.

face 2

Exercise - answer

import java.awt.*;

public class Face2 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(320, 180);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        drawFace(g, 10, 30);
        drawFace(g, 150, 50);
    }
    
    public static void drawFace(Graphics g, int x, int y) {
        g.setColor(Color.BLACK);
        g.drawOval(x, y, 100, 100);
        g.setColor(Color.BLUE);
        g.fillOval(x + 20, y + 30, 20, 20);
        g.fillOval(x + 60, y + 30, 20, 20);
        g.setColor(Color.RED);
        g.drawLine(x + 30, y + 70, x + 70, y + 70);
    }
}

Exercise : Face 3 practice-it

Modify your previous Java program to draw the following output. Use a for loop with your parameterized method to draw faces at different positions.

face 2

Exercise - answer

import java.awt.*;

public class Face3 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(520, 180);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
            drawFace(g, 10 + i * 100, 30);
        }
    }
    
    public static void drawFace(Graphics g, int x, int y) {
        g.setColor(Color.BLACK);
        g.drawOval(x, y, 100, 100);
        g.setColor(Color.BLUE);
        g.fillOval(x + 20, y + 30, 20, 20);
        g.fillOval(x + 60, y + 30, 20, 20);
        g.setColor(Color.RED);
        g.drawLine(x + 30, y + 70, x + 70, y + 70);
    }
}

Exercise : Spiral practice-it

spiral

Write a Java program that draws the following output using a for loop.

Exercise - answer

import java.awt.*;

public class Spiral {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(170, 170);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            g.drawLine(      10*i,   10 + 10*i, 160 - 10*i,  10 + 10*i);  // top
            g.drawLine(160 - 10*i,   10 + 10*i, 160 - 10*i, 160 - 10*i);  // right
            g.drawLine( 10 + 10*i,  160 - 10*i, 160 - 10*i, 160 - 10*i);  // bottom
            g.drawLine( 10 + 10*i,   20 + 10*i,  10 + 10*i, 160 - 10*i);  // left
        }
    }
}

Exercise - answer, alternative version

import java.awt.*;

public class Spiral {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        DrawingPanel panel = new DrawingPanel(170, 170);
        Graphics g = panel.getGraphics();
        int x = 0, y = 10;
        int len = 160;
        for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            g.drawLine(x, y, x + len, y);  // right
            x = x + len;
            len = len - 10;
            g.drawLine(x, y, x, y + len);  // down
            y = y + len;
            g.drawLine(x, y, x - len, y);  // left
            x = x - len;
            len = len - 10;
            g.drawLine(x, y, x, y - len);  // up
            y = y - len;
        }
    }
}

Exercise : Sierpinski Triangle

Write a Java program that draws the following output.... Just kidding!

sierpinski triangle