Building Java Programs

Lab: Strings

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this document are Copyright 2019 Stuart Reges and Marty Stepp.

lab document created by Marty Stepp, Stuart Reges and Whitaker Brand

Lab goals

Goals for this problem set:

String methods

Method name Description
charAt(index) character at given index
indexOf(str) index where the start of the given String appears in this string (-1 if not found)
length() number of characters in this String
replace(str1, str2) a new string with all occurrences of str1 changed to str2
substring(index1, index2)
or substring(index1)
the characters in this string from index1 (inclusive) to index2 (exclusive); if index2 is omitted, grabs till end of string
toLowerCase() a new string with all lowercase letters
toUpperCase() a new string with all uppercase letters

Exercise : String expressions practice-it

Write the results of each expression with Strings in "quotes" and characters in single quotes ('a')

//       index 0123456789012345
String str1 = "Frodo Baggins";
String str2 = "Gandalf the GRAY";
str1.length()
13
str1.charAt(7)
'a'
str2.charAt(0)
'G'
str1.indexOf("o")
2
str2.toUpperCase()
"GANDALF THE GRAY"
str1.toLowerCase().indexOf("B")
-1
str1.substring(4)
"o Baggins"
str2.substring(3, 14)
"dalf the GR"
str2.replace("a", "oo")
"Goondoolf the GRAY"
str2.replace("gray", "white")
"Gandalf the GRAY"
"str1".replace("r", "range")
"strange1"

Exercise : Syntax errors

Exercise - answer

  1. line 5: nextString should be next
  2. line 9: string should be String
  3. line 9: name should not be in quotes
  4. line 10: Whitaker should be in quotes
  5. line 10: cannot compare strings with ==; must use .equals
  6. line 13: cannot call replace without specifying a string object (name)
  7. line 14: toUppercase should be toUpperCase
  8. line 14: name. should come before toUpperCase, not passed as a parameter to it
  9. line 14: must say name = to store the result of toUpperCase
  10. line 15: must say name = to store the result of substring
  11. line 16: must use parentheses () when calling length

Exercise - Corrected version

public class StringOops {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);
        System.out.print("Type your name: ");
        String name = console.next();
        process(name);
    }

    public static void process(String "name") {
        if (name.equals("Whitaker")) {
            System.out.println("You must be really awesome.");
        }
        name = name.replace("a", "e");
        name = name.toUpperCase();
        name = name.substring(0, 3);
        System.out.println(name + " has " + name.length() + " letters");
    }
}

Exercise : ProcessName practice-it

Copy/paste and save icon ProcessName.java in jGRASP, then go to the next slide.

import java.util.*;  // for Scanner

public class ProcessName {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);
        System.out.print("Type your name: ");
        
        // your code goes here
        
        System.out.println("Your name is: " + name);
    }
}

continued on the next slide ...

Exercise - code to add practice-it